"I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.
14 And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."
The description "Son of Man" was a Messianic title.
A second meaning of the phrase "Son of Man" is that Jesus was truly a human being.
Christ (the Messiah) was the fulfillment of the prophecy of the seed of David ( ( gives the genealogical proof that Jesus, in His humanity, was a direct descendant of Abraham and David through Joseph, Jesus' legal father.). Jesus is the promised Messiah, which means He had to be of the lineage of David.
When people referred to Jesus as the Son of David, they meant that He was the long-awaited Deliverer, the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies.
The titles of honor they gave Him declared their faith in Him. Calling Him "Lord" expressed their sense of His deity, dominion, and power, and calling Him "Son of David," expressed their faith that He was the Messiah.
The Pharisees believed that people have free will but that God also has foreknowledge of human destiny. They believe in the resurrection of the dead. In contrast to the Sadducees, the Pharisees were mostly middle-class businessmen, and therefore were in contact with the common man. The Pharisees were held in much higher esteem by the common man than the Sadducees. Though they were a minority in the Sanhedrin and held a minority number of positions as priests, they seemed to control the decision making of the Sanhedrin far more than the Sadducees did, again because they had the support of the people.
"And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the son of David?Jesus' point in asking the question of was that the Messiah is than the physical son of David. If He is David's Lord, He must be greater than David. As Jesus says in "I am the Root and the Offspring of David." That is, He is both the Creator of David and the Descendant of David. Only the Son of God made flesh could say that.
He was called the son of man, because He was born of a virgin. He had a human father but he didn't have sex with this virgin until Jesus was conceived. He was conceived of the Holy Spirit in the virgin Mary. Thus he is human—fully human.
The common understanding is that "Son of God" implies his deity—which it does—and that "Son of Man" implies his humanity, which it does too. He was a son of man, that is, a human being. And he is the Son of God, in that he has always existed as the Eternally Begotten One who comes forth from the Father forever.
He calls himself Son of Man very often. I think the reason he did so is because, on the face of it, Son of Man is an ordinary phrase for "human being." He was born of a man. And there's no offense there: who isn't a son of man? But those with ears to hear could hear (Daniel 7), in which he was claiming a very exalted role in the history of redemption.
"Are you the Christ, the Son of the living God?"
"I am, and you will see the Son of Man coming with great power and glory." So he confessed his open deity right at the point where he knew he would be crucified for it. "Son of Man" has the double meaning of human being and, according to Daniel 7, exalted heavenly one. And Jesus means to communicate both of those.
But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (then saith he to the sick of the palsy,) Arise, take up thy bed, and go unto thine house."It would therefore appear as though our Lord wished to call the attention of those present to a phrase which they already knew, but did not rightly understand. He seems to point them to Daniel 7:13, and reminding them that even there "one like unto the son of man" receives authority, tells them that this authority includes forgiving sins, and that this may be exercised not only in the future and in "the clouds of heaven," but now and "on earth."